For hundreds of years, artists, architects, musicians,
mathematicians, and even biologists have been fascinated by this number,
seemingly ubiquitous in all we consider beautiful. But what exactly is this
number? Where is it derived from? And what gives it such strange properties,
and why does it come up so often in unexpected places?
One of the simplest ways to define the golden ratio was
proposed by Euclid in about 300 BC. It spoke about a particular point on a
Euclid investigated a special point, dividing the line a+b,
into a and b, in such a way that the ratio a:b was exactly the same as a+b:a.
Perhaps an easier way to envisage this is with a rectangle, often called the
The ratio of the vertical side to the horizontal side of
this rectangle is clearly 1:φ (pronounced "phi"). However, if we draw another
vertical line to construct a square of side one, we produce another rectangle.
Euclid then defined φ as being the
number for which this new rectangle formed on the right was similar to the
large rectangle as a whole. More mathematically speaking,
this new rectangle on the right is also a golden rectangle, it itself can then
be split up into a square and a golden rectangle! This process can go on ad
infinitum, as shown in the diagram below.
this is geometry we eliminate the negative value and are left with just
have spotted something else funny about φ. We could write
our original equation slightly differently by flipping the fractions upside
right, φ has the unique and bizarre property
that it is exactly one greater than its reciprocal: 1/φ = 0.61803…, but it doesn’t stop there. Using the quadratic equation we
used earlier, we can get an expression for φ2...
So φ2=2.61803…! This also gives us an easy way to
calculate further powers of φ, by substituting any φ2for φ+1
There is a
fundamental pattern happening here. φ=1 + 1/φ. This can also be written as
In the same
φ2=φ+1, or φ2=φ1+φ0
you could say that φn=φn-1+φn-2.
So, if we
had a series, let’s call it F, of the powers of φ, then Fn=Fn-1 + Fn-2.
words, each term is formed by adding the two previous terms together. You may
have heard of a sequence like this before, it’s called the Fibonacci series. It normally starts like this…
1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233
difference between this and the powers of φ is that we defined the start
differently! After the first two terms it follows exactly the same rules for
the formation of further terms.
So, if we
consider the powers of φ being as being part of the series,
then each subsequent term of the series will be φ times greater than the
last. This is true by definition, for any number xxn/xn-1=x. This means that in any Fibonacci sequence, no matter what your
starting terms, the ratio between one term and the next will gradually close in
Now we move
on to speak about the irrationality of φ. φ is an irrational number, which
means that it cannot be expressed as a fraction of two integers, and has an
infinite amount of digits that continue without repetition. Another property of
irrational numbers is that neither a rational multiplied by an irrational
number, or a rational add an irrational number will have a rational result.
irrational numbers can be expressed as ‘continued fractions,’ such as the one I
am about to show you.
off with a simple fact:
wherever we see φ, we can replace it with 1+1/φ
actually the simplest continued fraction you can get: the 1’s gradually
trailing off to infinity, but this also makes it the ‘most irrational’ number.
But how can any number be ‘more’ irrational than another? How irrational a
number is depends on how well it can be approximated using fractions. π, for example, can be approximated relatively accurately by 22/7, which
is accurate to about 0.001264, but the
closest approximation to φ with a denominator under 10 is 13/8, which is only
accurate to about 0.00696601125, six times less accurate! This article explains further.
this reason that φ shows up so much in nature. For
example, for most plants which grow leaves around a stem, each leaf is rotated
exactly 360/φ°, or about 222.5° from the previous one. Nature is taking
advantage of the irrationality of φ: this means that no two leaves will ever
overlap very much, in fact it is so irrational that it creates the minimum
amount of overlap between leaves. This is important because it allows more
light to get at each plant so that they can photosynthesize with maximum
because it is so irrational, it can be used to aid space efficient packing of
seeds. In sunflowers, the seeds are placed in two opposing spirals, one of 89
seeds, and one of 55 seeds, two Fibonacci numbers. These spirals create the
Golden Angle we talked about above. This means that two seeds will never line
up perfectly with the center of the sunflower, and thus there will always be a
small gap for the next seed to be placed into. Other seed bearers, such as pine
cones, also have patterns of two Fibonacci spirals.
One of the
most famous uses of φ in nature is in the Nautilus shell, and the shells of
many other creatures. There is a spiral in their shell patterns as below. This
is because of the self-similarity of Golden Rectangles: the Nautilus can keep
growing its shell in the same pattern and constantly get bigger, meaning the
shape and design is never a limiting factor.
artists have used φ as well, such as in this piece by George Seurat (top),
and this by Piet Mondrian (bottom).
the French impressionist composer, is said to have used φ in many of his
compositions, with the climax of the piece often coming approximately 61.8% of
the way through the entire work, such as in Reflets
dans l’Eau, where the harmonic structure also follows the Fibonacci sequence.
The recursive, infinite nature of Golden Rectangles and φ seem to be very
attractive to artists, so much so that it became known as the “Divine
Proportion”, and perhaps that is why φ features so heavily.
also used φ, with varying success, to try to predict the stock market, using
techniques such as Fibonacci Retracement, or predicting population growth in
various species, mostly based on a more complex version of Fibonacci’s original
much about this number and its ubiquity is still a mystery, one thing is
certainly clear: φ has a profound effect on so much in our world, whether in
nature, art, or mathematics, and we will keep discovering more appearances of
this enigmatic number for years to come.
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